The colonial rope has always been vulnerable. His card ignored local identities and political preferences. The limits were set with one rule – arbitrarily. At a briefing for British Prime Minister H. H. Asquith in 1915, Sykes said, “I want to draw a line between the `E` in Acre and the last `K` in Kirkuk.” He swiped his finger on a map spread out on a table at 10 Downing Street, from what is now the city on Israel`s Mediterranean coast to the mountains of northern Iraq. Moreover, as Middle East scholars Steven Cook and Amr Leheta write in Foreign Policy, the borders of the Middle East are “not bizarre lines drawn on a blank map.” On the contrary, they reflected former Ottoman administrative units and were the result of various political agreements and negotiations – a process that also defined many borders outside the Middle East. And the countries that emerged after the Sykes and Picot negotiations cannot simply be wiped off the map, as scholars explain: but to groan a centuries-old colonial agreement as the original sin of the Middle East is both practical and somewhat naïve. It ignores both the history of pluralistic societies that existed before the partition of the Ottoman countries and the many decades of Arab discordance that followed, fueling the sectarian divisions that now rock countries like Syria and Iraq. The agreement was based on the premise that the Triple Entente would succeed in defeating the Ottoman Empire during World War I, and was part of a series of secret agreements that called for its division. The main negotiations that led to the agreement took place between November 23, 1915 and November 3, 1915. In January 1916, British and French diplomats Mark Sykes and François Georges-Picot initialled an agreed memorandum.

[3] The Convention was ratified by their respective governments on 9 and 16 May 1916. [4] His foreign policy adviser Edward House was then informed of the deal by British Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour, who 18 months later was to put his name in a statement that would have an even more fateful impact on the region. The formal agreements between Britain, France and Russia consisted of the following eleven letters. On the 23rd. In December 1917, Sykes (who had been sent to France in mid-December to see what happened to the Draft Arrangement) and a representative of the French Foreign Ministry had given a public speech to the Central Syrian Congress in Paris on non-Turkish elements of the Ottoman Empire, including liberated Jerusalem. Sykes had said that the fait accompli of Hejayz`s independence made it almost impossible for Syria to deny effective and genuine autonomy. But the protocol also notes that the Syrian Arabs in Egypt were not satisfied with the developments and without a clearer and less ambiguous statement regarding the future of Syria and Mesopotamia, the Allies and the King of Hedja would lose much Arab support. [70] The French elected Picot as French High Commissioner for the soon-to-be-occupied territory of Syria and Palestine. .