If there is no written contractual agreement, the rights of the parties depend on the legal rules or the guarantees or promises which, although not expressly, are implicit in the context of the relationship between the shipper and the carrier. [1] A party to the charter for a voyage is a formal agreement between the shipowner and the charterers, in which they agree that the ship is carrying a particular cargo at a given location – and that, once loaded, the ship travels directly to a given place or place to be designated in a given port of call. [3] where the cargo is delivered. As a result, the AOC contains very few standardised conditions, with the exception of the different voyage charter conditions that govern each lift as soon as the ship has been tendered for the load. The least standardized part of the contract will be the shipping program and the terms of appointment, and it is these provisions that are most abused or challenged during the period of a long COA. SmartCon is the next generation of contract processing tools developed with Microsoft`s latest technology. We have developed the editing functions in the Word versions of our contracts to allow smooth integration into the work processes of shipping professionals. The Cease clause has become common because charterers are often not personally interested in loading. You can only be an agent or have chartered the ship as a speculation to get a gain from the consignment note. The effect of the clause is that charterers who ship full freight fulfil all their obligations. The shipowner shall exempt them from any subsequent liability and shall assume a deposit duty on the cargo for the payment of any freight, unloading or dead freight to be paid. When the Cease clause is constructed, it is established that, if the language so permits, liability is assumed only with the right of pledge granted to the shipowner. In other words, charterers are exempted only from debts which have been replaced by a right of pledge to the shipowner.

[3] The law again intervenes in the interpretation of the treaty. The meaning of the words in the contract, or, in other words, its construction, when there is a dispute about it, is determined by a judge or tribunal. The result is that some more or less usual clauses of affreightment contracts have been brought to justice, and the decisions taken in these cases are treated in practice[1] as legal rules that determine the importance of certain common expressions in maritime contracts. These norms, whether customary or legal, which govern the obligations of carriers of goods at sea, are of paramount importance in cases where there is notification without a written agreement. It is therefore appropriate to examine the first such cases in which no explicit oral or written agreement is concluded, except as regards the cargo and the place of destination of the goods, and, consequently, where the rights and obligations of the parties with regard to all other conditions of carriage depend entirely on the legal provisions, always taking into account: that the same rules apply when there is a written contract. unless they are limited or denied by the terms of the contract. [1] Although the COA is not a charter (for a designated vessel), it can be considered a “hybrid” contract for the maritime transport of goods. This is still a relatively new development in the field of navigation and there are still areas where problems may arise because users are not fully familiar with the problem. One problem that may arise is to use charter parties for each shipment, but these charter parties may not cover the points contained in the COA. In the age of sailing, cargo and ships were lost more often than they are today. This invoice proved that the transport costs were paid, but became mainly proof that the freight was actually on board, thus becoming a negotiable title deed.

In this type of transport, the bill of lading performs two main tasks, such as receiving cargo and title deeds. .